Creek. Schon vor vielen Jahrhunderten hatten die Indianer im Südosten Nordamerikas eine hohe Stufe der Zivilisation erreicht. Es gab komplexe Gesellschaften. Historic Map Karte von Creek Indianer, Alabama & Georgien, durch die Creek Indianer Gave T - Finden Sie alles für ihr Zuhause bei kelannu.com Die Muskogee, auch Creek genannt, sind ein Indianervolk Nordamerikas, das ursprünglich aus dem Südosten der USA stammt. In ihrer eigenen Sprache.
Creek-KriegMai im Jahre als Verräter von anderen Creek-Indianern erschossen. Mit dem Indianervertreibungsgesetz des Präsidenten Andrew Jackson im Jahr . Creek. Schon vor vielen Jahrhunderten hatten die Indianer im Südosten Nordamerikas eine hohe Stufe der Zivilisation erreicht. Es gab komplexe Gesellschaften. Historic Map Karte von Creek Indianer, Alabama & Georgien, durch die Creek Indianer Gave T - Finden Sie alles für ihr Zuhause bei kelannu.com
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Eines der Creek Indianer Online Casinos Creek Indianer deutsche Spieler ist DrГckGlГck. - Account OptionsOft lagen ihre Häuser an kleinen Flüssen englisch: creek. Creek Indianer polytheistisch - animistische Stammesreligion der Muskogee kennt einen 280x namens Esaugetuh Emissee etwa "Bewahrer des Atems"; auch Hisagita-imisi oder Was Ist Ein Bullyder ursprünglich allein in einem Haus auf dem Hügel Nunne Chaha wohnte, das als einzige Insel der Welt aus dem Ozean ragte. Speck in and In some cases, treaties were obtained by such fraudulent means as purposely negotiating with a non-representative group of minor Lottozahlen 21.12 after being refused by the official delegation, or forging the names of chiefs who refused to cooperate. William Jay was an English-trained architect who, from This partition was merely geographical at first, Parship App Android as Creek Indianer with European colonists developed, the Lower Towns were more accessible to foreign influence. Although the United States rejected the fraudulent Treaty of Indian Springs, the Creeks recognized that the Georgia government would not relent. Before the trek began World Of Warships Schiffe Freischalten Tribe was gathered into groups and supervised by the military in temporary forts concentration camps in Georgia. A peace treaty between the Creek Lord Of Ocean Free and the United States was eventually signed, months after the War of Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters. More from the Web Creek Indian Bibliography. The game was an important part of Creek culture, offering recreation during games, either among the town Aufstellung Deutschland Wm Finale 2021 or against a team from Rennauto Spiele Kostenlos friendly town. A monthly English-language publication of the Creek tribe in Alabama. During the early s, some Poarch Creeks began to work in the timber and turpentine industries. Wo Kann Man Mit Google Play Guthaben Bezahlen, or War, towns took the lead in declaring and conducting war operations; councils addressing topics of diplomacy and foreign Euro Lott would meet in one of these Spielhalle Niedersachsen. Reprint Co.
Although they spoke a variety of languages, including Muskogee, Alabama, and Hitchiti, the Indians were united in their wish to remain at peace with one another.
By English newcomers from South Carolina were calling these allied peoples "Creeks. They numbered about 10, at this time.
When General James Oglethorpe and his Georgia colonists arrived in , Creek-English relations were already well established. Oglethorpe with Creek Indians.
By the s tens of thousands of skins were leaving the port of Charleston, South Carolina, each year, bound for English factories, where they were cut into breeches, stretched into book covers, and sewn into gloves.
Savannah , Georgia, later joined Charleston as a leading port, and in the s it may have exported more than 60, skins each year. In Creek towns the profits from the trade included cloth, kettles, guns, and rum.
These items became integral parts of the culture, easing the labor tasks of Creeks. However, they also created conflict by enriching some, but not all, Indians.
The trade William McIntosh. Many Georgia newcomers were enslaved Africans, and they also forged ties with the Creek Indians. Over the course of the eighteenth century, hundreds of fugitives from slavery settled in Creek towns.
They, too, shaped the Creek peoples, especially by encouraging them to oppose slavery. Creeks Creek Indian Painting. At the same time, the United States initiated a program to turn Creeks into ranchers and planters.
Atmosphere: The atmosphere was hot and sticky in the mid-year and mellow in the winter. Creatures: The creatures included rabbit, wild hoard, turkey, opossum, raccoon, squirrel, and deer.
Crops: The Creek crops developed in the region were corn, beans, squash, melon and sweet potatoes. When a Creek Indian tribal town grew to a certain number, the town split in half and one half traveled not that far away and established a new town.
They maintained a relationship with their hometown. Thatched huts were the main structures that sheltered the Creek Indians.
Notes on the Creek Indians , by J. Hewitt, edited by John R. Anthropological Papers, No. Bulletin , BAE. Washington: Government Printing Office. Spartanburg, SC.
Reprint Co. FHL Book US Government Printing Office. The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies.
Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters. They were and are the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility.
External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History.
Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. They were actually not so much a nation as a confederacy that welcomed new member tribes, even those of a different linguistic and cultural background.
Those who joined blended their own traditions into the basic Creek governmental and social structure. In the early s, the Creek population was about 22, Forced relocation to Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma took a terrible toll, and by the population had decreased to 13, The Civil War further decimated the Creek people, reducing the number to 10, by In their population of 43, placed them tenth among Native American tribes.
The Creek Indians called themselves Muscogees, or Muscogulges, names that in their language identified them as people living on land that was wet or prone to flooding.
During the American colonial period, they received their modern name from English traders who noted that their towns always sat on the banks of picturesque creeks.
These delegates are gathered at the Creek Council House. Tribal legend traces Creek ancestry to the sky, where the ancestors lived in spirit form before descending to earth as physical beings.
They originally lived in the West; their oral tradition tells of a journey toward the sunrise, crossing mountains so large they were called the "backbone of the world," traversing a wide, muddy river, and conquering their new homeland.
Settling in the East, the ancestral Creeks separated into two groups. This partition was merely geographical at first, but as interaction with European colonists developed, the Lower Towns were more accessible to foreign influence.
The Upper Towns tended to retain more traditional, political, and social characteristics. Annual spring floods provided the Creeks with favorable agricultural conditions.
They cultivated a variety of crops and gathered wild fruits, roots, and herbs. Grass and the inner bark of trees provided material for making the shawls with which the women clothed themselves.
The Creeks were also skillful hunters, depending on animals for both meat and clothing. Although the Creeks had contact with non-Indians as early as as a result of Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto's expedition, regular interactions did not begin until the late s when the English moved into South Carolina and the Spanish settled in Florida.
They traded actively with all of the European colonies, though they generally preferred to deal with the English, who offered a greater variety and better quality of goods, as well as lower prices and better credit terms than the Spanish or the French.
Intermarriage between Creek women and foreign trading partners was common. Creek wives acted as interpreters and taught their European husbands the language and customs of their people.
Because they understood both the Indian and white cultures, many of the multiracial children of these marriages became tribal leaders as adults.
He became chief of the dominant Wind Clan in the late s, and for two decades he worked to unify the Creek nation as an ally of the new United States of America.
The Creeks had traditionally welcomed all non-Indians in a spirit of equality, but they did come to accept the concept of black slavery as an economic practicality.
Because captured enemy Indians had sometimes become Creek slaves, the practice was not without precedent. European colonials encouraged the Creeks to think of blacks as slaves in order to prevent runaways from seeking refuge within Creek towns.
Furthermore, expert Creek hunters were often paid to track and capture runaway slaves. Immediately after the Revolutionary War, the United States began trying to expand onto Indian homelands, and by virtually all of the Creeks were relocated to Indian Territory in what is now east-central Oklahoma.
In an attempt to maintain their traditional identity in their new surroundings, they reestablished their former towns: the Upper Creeks settled along the Deep Fork, North Canadian, and Canadian Rivers, while the Lower Creeks located their towns farther to the north along the Arkansas and Verdigris Rivers.
The city of Tulsa evolved from a Creek relocation settlement built on sacred ashes brought from the old eastern town of Talsi.
In addition to job availability and training issues that confront all Americans, Creeks face the problem of tribal economic independence and the struggle to retain their cultural identity.
The Muscogee Creek Nation of Oklahoma actively seeks to assume and assert the rights and responsibilities of a sovereign nation through the retention of existing tribal lands, acquisition of additional land, and improved access to significant places outside tribal lands.
Rebuilding their towns in Oklahoma meant much more to the Creeks than simply erecting buildings. The full meaning of the word idalwa is diluted when the English word "town" is substituted.
An idalwa had the autonomy of a Greek city-state and was the primary cultural unit of Creek society. Each town had its own traditions and its own versions of ceremonies, and the Creeks drew more of their identity from the town than from familial relationships.
A child was considered a member of the town of his or her mother. The town square, the heart of the Creek community, was used for warm-weather council meetings, dances, and rituals.
The square was an open space defined by four rectangular structures, each with one open side that faced the square.
A ceremonial fire was kept burning in the center of the open space. Adjacent to the square were two other important facilities: the chokofa, or rotunda, and the chunkey yard.
The chokofa was a circular structure about 40 feet in diameter that served as a meeting place for the town council during the winter. It was also used for social gatherings where the entire town could enjoy singing and dancing during inclement weather.
The chunkey yard was a field two to three hundred yards long that was recessed into the ground so that spectators could sit on the surrounding banks.
On it was played a ball game that resembled lacrosse. The game was an important part of Creek culture, offering recreation during games, either among the town members or against a team from a friendly town.
Known as "brother to war," it also provided a forum for settling disputes between unfriendly or enemy towns. In addition to the partitioning of the nation into Upper and Lower communities, the confederacy's fifty towns were divided into two categories, based on descent.
Each group is known as a moiety. Red, or War, towns took the lead in declaring and conducting war operations; councils addressing topics of diplomacy and foreign relations would meet in one of these towns.
White, or Peace, towns were cities of refuge; councils seeking to establish peace or enact laws governing internal affairs of the Creek nation met in these towns.
The moiety of each town was easily identifiable, as its color was painted on buildings and ceremonial articles, and was used as body decoration by its people.
There was an atmosphere of camaraderie among towns of the same moiety, and definite rivalry between towns of opposite natures.
The Creeks were one of the so-called Five Civilized Tribes, along with the Seminoles who were actually affiliated with the Creek Confederacy until they formed a separate government in , Cherokees, Chickasaws, and Choctaws.
The title derived from the fact that these tribes began to assimilate European ways from the earliest phases of contact.
The Creeks eagerly traded deerskins for brightly colored cotton cloth. They used their hunting skills to obtain metal tools.
Included among these tools were guns, which transformed their methods of hunting, making them increasingly reliant on continual trading.
While the acquisition of new goods improved their lifestyle, it also eroded their traditional self-sufficiency.
The Creeks voluntarily modified their way of life in response to interaction with white traders, but the American government went one step further, undertaking an official effort to assimilate them completely into white culture.
An early phase of this process involved the appointment of Benjamin Hawkins as principal agent to the tribe. Hawkins believed that the Creek people would benefit from being taught and equipped to adopt white culture.
He devoted the last twenty years of his life to this effort, encouraging the women to become skilled at making cotton cloth and the men to adopt modern farming techniques.
In ihrer eigenen Sprache nennen sie sich Mvskoke oder Maskoki. Heute üblich ist die davon abgeleitete Schreibweise Muskogee , im englischsprachigen Raum auch Muscogee.
Die Seminolen sind eng verwandt mit den Muskogee und sprechen ebenfalls die Maskoki-Sprache. Die Muskogee sind eine der fünf zivilisierten Nationen.
Heute leben sie vor allem in Oklahoma , Alabama und Florida. Die frühgeschichtlichen Muskogee waren wahrscheinlich die Nachfahren der Mississippi-Kultur und möglicherweise mit den Utinahica in Süd- Georgia verwandt.
Mehr ein loser Bund als ein geschlossener Stamm lebten die Muskogee in selbständigen Dörfern in Flusstälern in den heutigen Staaten Georgia und Alabama und bestanden aus vielen ethnischen Gruppen, die mehrere verschiedene Sprachen sprachen.
Zu ihnen gehörten die Abihka , Alabama , Tallapoosa und Coushatta.